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Information Skills: 8: Processing and sharing

Reference managers

A reference manager is a web application that can help you save, organise, cite and share references (the sources you’ve used). HAN has a licence for RefWorks for this. In a separate RefWorks library guide, you’ll find more information about creating an account and working with RefWorks.

There are also free reference managers, such as Zotero and Mendeley.

Processing and sharing

You can process and share the information you’ve used correctly and legally by citing the sources in the text and in a reference list, based on the citation rules that are set by your degree course (e.g. APA).


“Copyright is the exclusive right of the creator of a work of literature, science or art, or that of their assignees, to publish and to reproduce this work, subject to the limitations set by law” (Copyright law, 2010).

This article from the copyright act means that you are not permitted simply to copy another author’s text. One condition for reproducing other people's texts is to cite your sources correctly. If you fail to do this, you are committing plagiarism.

pla·gia·rism copying another author’s work and presenting it as your own => appropriation, theft, piracy (Bastiaansen, 2008, p. 1183).

Acknowledging your sources (APA)

There are various guidelines for acknowledging sources. At HAN, the most common and widely accepted guidelines are those used by the American Psychological Association (APA). You will find an explanation and examples at

A link to a free download of the APA guidelines (2017) can be found at the website of the HAN Study and Multimedia Centres.

Citing and paraphrasing

citing copying a passage literally from another source => quoting, reproducing (Bastiaansen, 2008, p. 274).
The clue is in the dictionary definition: quoting. This means that you should always put quote marks around a citation. The citation should not be too long, and you should acknowledge the source and include it in the reference list.

pa·ra·phra·sing giving a paraphrase of something (Bastiaansen, 2008, p.1143).
In other words, rephrasing the ideas and/or opinion(s) of the authors you have consulted in your own words. This isn’t done by putting quote marks around the text, as you would when citing. But when you’re paraphrasing, you do need to acknowledge the source and include it in your reference list.

For the rules on citing and paraphrasing, see the website of the HAN Study and Multimedia Centres.
PLEASE NOTE: If you quote or paraphrase without acknowledging your source, you are committing plagiarism!

Reference list

All of the sources that you refer to when citing and paraphrasing should be included in the reference list. You will find the rules for drawing up a reference list at