Skip to Main Content

Guidelines to APA Style: Audiovisual media reference examples

Libguide on citing sources in APA Style.

Music album or song

Author, A. (Publication date). Title [Description]. Publisher.

For music albums, note the artist or group as the author. For classical works, mention the name of the composer as the author, the performer(s) in the description and the year in which the composition was published in brackets.
It is not necessary to mention music platforms such as Spotify or iTunes or devices like CD.
If the sound recordings is only available online, e.g. SoundCloud, also provide the name of the platform, the retrieval date and the URL.

  • Music album

Prokofiev, S. (2009). Peter and the wolf [Album recorded by Sting, C. Abbado, & Chamber Orchestra of Europe]. Deutsche Grammophon. (Original work published 1936)

Parenthetical citation: (Prokofiev, 1936/2009)
Narrative citation: Prokofiev (1936/2009)

  • Single song or track

Mozart, W. A. (1990). Introitus: Kyrie [Song recorded by F. Lott, F. Welser-Möst, R. Cooke, & London Philharmonic Orchestra]. On Requiem. Warner Classics. (Original work published 1791)

Parenthetical citation: (Mozart, 1791/1990)
Narrative citation: Mozart (1791/1990)


Host, H. (Host). (Publication date). Title podcast [Audio podcast]. Production Company. Retrieved Month day, year, from http(s)://xxxx

  • Podcast
    List the host(s) or presenter(s) of the podcast as the author, with their role in brackets. The publication date can be one year, a period of several years or a year in the past to the present (2018; 2018-2019; 2020-present).

Shetty, J. (Host). (2019-present). On purpose [Audio podcast]. Simplecast. Retrieved April 11, 2022 from

Parenthetical citation: (Shetty, 2019-present)
Narrative citation: Shetty (2019-present) 

  • Podcast episode
    Provide the episode number after the titles in parentheses, before the description. If data is missing, for example an episode number, the production company or the URL, this information may be omitted.

Tavernise, S. (Host). (2022, April 6). Why proving war crimes is difficult and rare [Audio podcast episode]. In The Daily. The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2022 from

Parenthetical citation: (Tavernise, 2022)
Narrative citation: Tavernise (2022)


Artist, A. (Year of creation). Title [Description]. Name museum, Location museum.

  • Always include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.
  • For untitled artwork, include a description in square brackets instead of a title.
  • Provide a link to the artwork on the museum website if available and the retrieval date.

Vermeer, J. (1663). Woman reading a letter [Painting]. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Retrieved April 6, 2022 from,1

Parenthetical citation: (Vermeer, 1663)
Narrative citation: Vermeer (1663)


Author, A. (Year, Month day). Title [Description]. Name website. Retrieved Month day, year, from http(s)://xxxx

  • Image under a CC license
    In this example, the photographer offers a photo on Flickr with a Creative Commons (CC) license: the photo may be reused with acknowledgement of the source, not for commercial purposes, and the photo may not be distributed if it has been edited. The source attribution looks as follows:

Herrmann, R. (2013, November 2). Ciha Fen tree [Photo]. Flickr. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from


The CC license requires that in addition to the name of the creator, the link be included that refers to explanations of reuse. This link is displayed in the source citation:

Citation for a document on paper: Cover photo: Herrmann, 2013.
Citation for an electronic document: Cover photo: Herrmann, 2013. CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

See more information on images section Tables and figures.


Author, A. (Publication date). Title map [Description]. Publisher.

  • In case of an online map, add the date viewed and the web address.
  • As dynamically created maps (e.g. a route in Google Maps) do not have a title, the description is placed in square brackets.

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from HAN University Arnhem to HAN University Nijmegen]. Retrieved November 28, 2022, from

Parenthetical citation: (Google, n.d.)
Narrative citation: Google (n.d.)

Film or video

Author, A. (Function). (Publication year or date). Title of work [Description]. Production Company.

  • Provide the director in the author element of the reference, followed by the notation “(Director).”
  • Mention the function in parentheses after the name. If the director's name is not given, write down the name of another contributor, for example the presenter, writer or producer.
  • The description may be followed by a semicolon and an explanation, for example 'extended edition' or 'director's cut' of a feature film on dvd.
  • Provide the production company or companies in the source element of the reference. Separate multiple production companies with a semicolon.
  • Film

Fleming, V. (Director). (1939). Gone with the wind [Film]. Selznick International Pictures; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Parenthetical citation: (Fleming, 1939)
Narrative citation: Fleming (1939)

  • TV-series

Serling, R. (Executive Producer). (1959-1964). The twilight zone [TV series]. Cayuga Productions; CBS Productions.

Parenthetical citation: (Serling, 1959-1964)
Narrative citation: Serling (1959-1964)

  •  TV series episode

Attias, D. (Director). (2008, January 27). Transitions (Season 5, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In Simone, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers), The wire. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO.

Parenthetical citation: (Attias, 2008)
Narrative citation: Attias (2008)

  • YouTube or other video platform
    Write down the name of the person or organization that uploaded the video as the author, this does not have to be the creator of the video.

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved November 28, 2022, from

Parenthetical citation: (Harvard University, 2019)
Narrative citation: Harvard University (2019)